Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 131-136
The Effect of Physical Activity on Academic Performance and Mental Health: Systematic Review
Getu Teferi, Department of Sports Science, Debremarkos University, Debremarkos, Ethiopia
Received: Aug. 26, 2020;       Accepted: Sep. 9, 2020;       Published: Nov. 4, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajset.20200503.12      View  44      Downloads  60
Abstract
Examining the association between participation in physical activities and academic achievement is important for many reasons. Understanding the relationship between participation in sport activities, academic achievement and cognitive development is very important for teachers, school psychologists and other stakeholders. The relationship among physical activity, academic achievement and mental health has long been theorized to be of profound importance in understanding human behavior and development. This review article aims specifically to highlight the state of existing research pertaining to the relationship between physical activity and the state of mental health. Different studies, summarized here, have found that healthy levels of physical activity generally correlate with mental health and academic achievement. This review result has showed that there was a significant relationship between physical fitness level and academic achievement and higher academic achievement was associated with higher levels of physical fitness. Increased physical activity levels and fitness can improve bone and musculoskeletal function and help alleviate or relieve depression, anxiety and stress. Generally, the previous research findings from large-scale observational studies indicate that participation in physical activity has a small to moderate effect in prevention and management of the risk of depression and anxiety which in turn have effect on academic achievement and mental health. Physical activity is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle intervention that can easily be implemented into school settings.
Keywords
Academic Achievement, Cognitive Development, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Students
To cite this article
Getu Teferi, The Effect of Physical Activity on Academic Performance and Mental Health: Systematic Review, American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2020, pp. 131-136. doi: 10.11648/j.ajset.20200503.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Gerber, 1996; Gerber, S. B. (1996). Extracurricular activities and academic achievement. Journal of Research & Developmental Education, 30, 42-50.
[2]
Stegman & Stephens, L. J., (2000). Athletics and academics: Are they compatible? The High School Magazine, 7, 36-39.
[3]
Stephens, L. J., & Schaban, L. A. (2002). The effect of inter scholastic sports participation on academic achievement of middle school students, NASSP Bulletin, 86, 34-31.
[4]
Ewing, M. E., & Seefeldt, V. (2002). Patterns of participation in American agency- sponsored youth sports. In F. L. Smoll & R. E. Smith (Eds.), Children and youth in sport: A bio-psychological perspective, 2ndedition (pp. 39-60). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.
[5]
Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10, 19-40. doi: 10.1080/1740898042000334890.
[6]
Heilman, C.(2012). A mixed methods approach examining alpine ski racing as a context for positive youth development. Dissertation Abstracts International, 72, Retrieved August 9, 2012 from: Psyc INFO, Ipswich, MA.
[7]
ACSM. (2009). Position statement on the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults, Med Sci Sports, 10 (3).
[8]
WHO (2010a). Global Status Report on Non-communicable Diseases. Geneva; Switzerland: WHO.
[9]
US Department of Health and Human Service (1996). Physical Activity and Health: A report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Atlanta, GA.
[10]
Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2008). Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report 2008. Washington, DC: U.S: Department of Health and Human Services.
[11]
Hagströmer, M., (2007). Assessment of health-enhancing physical activity at population level. (Thesis, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition Unit for Prevention Nutrition, Karolinska Institute: Stockholm).
[12]
Caspersen, C. J., K. E. Powell, and G. M. Christenson (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep, 100 (2): 126–31.
[13]
Cavill, N., et al. (2006). An evidence-based approach to physical activity promotion and policy development in Europe: contrasting case studies. Promot Educ; 13 (2): 104–11.
[14]
Riddoch C. (2005). Physical activity, in Key topics in public health – essential briefings on prevention and health promotion, L. Ewels, Editor. London: Churchill Livingstone.
[15]
Pica, R. (2004a). More movement, smarter kids. Retrieved from http://www.movingandlearning.com.
[16]
Grissom, J. B. (February 2005). Physical fitness and academic achievement. Journal of Exercise Physiology, vol. 8, Retrieved from http://www.asep.org/jeponline/issue/Doc/Feb2005/Grissom.pdf.
[17]
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307 (5), 483-490.
[18]
Jenson, E. (2001). Moving with the brain in mind. Educational Leadership, (3), pg. 34-37. Jensen, E. (2010, April 19). Physical Education Is Supported by Brain Research. Physical Education Is Supported by Brain Research | Brain Based Learning | Brain Based Teaching | Articles from Jensen Learning. Retrieved fromhttp://www.jensenlearning.com/news/physical-education-is-supported-by brain research or brain-based-learning.
[19]
Gilbert, A. G. (2002). Movement is the key to learning. Retrieved fromhttp://www.newhorizons.org.
[20]
Donnelly, J. E., Greene, J. L., Gibson, C. A., Smith, B. K., Washburn, R. A., Sullivan, D. K., (2009). Physical activity across the curriculum (PAAC): A randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Preventive Medicine, 49 (4), 336-34.
[21]
Chomitz, V. R., Slining, M. M., McGowan, R. T., Mitchell, S. E., Dawson, G. F., &Hacker, (2009). Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive esults from public school children in Northeastern United States. Journal of School Health, 79, 30-37.
[22]
California Department of Education (2005). State study proves physically fit kids perform better. Retrieved from http://www.health.ocde.us/physed.asp (CDE, 2005).
[23]
Trost, (2009). Active education: physical education, physical activity and academic performance. A research brief. Active Living Research, a National Program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, (Summer).
[24]
Holler, D., Messiah, S. E., Lopez-Mitnik, G., Holler, L. T., Almon, M., & Agatston, A. S., (2010). Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children. American Journal of Public Health, 100 (4), 646-653.
[25]
American Heart Association’s 2010 American Heart Association. (2010). Students’ physical fitness associated with academic achievement; organized physical activity.
[26]
Wittberg, R., Northrup, K., & Cottrell, L. (2009). Children’s physical fitness and academic achievement. American Journal of Health Education, Jan-Feb (40), 1, 30-36.
[27]
Michigan State University. (2006). Research Finds Vigorous Exercise Equals Better Academics. Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060803181914.htm.
[28]
Bausch, C. E. (2011). Physical activity and the achievement gap among urban minority youth. Journal of School Health, 81 (10), 626-634.
[29]
Coe, D. P., Pivarnik, J. M., Womack, C. J., Reeves, M. J., & Malina, R. M. (2012). Health-related fitness and academic achievement in middle school students. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 52 (6), 654-660.
[30]
Castelli, D., Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., & Erwin, H. E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third and fifth grade students. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 239-252.
[31]
Zoeller, R. F. (2010). Can working out train the brain too? American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 4. (no. 5), 397-409.
[32]
Van Dusen, D. P., Kelder, S. S., Kohl, H. W., 3rd, Ranjit, N., & Perry, C. L. (2011). "Associations of physical fitness and academic performance among school children." Journal of School Health, 81 (12), 733-40.
[33]
Rauner, R. R, Walters, R. W., Avery, M., & Wanser, T. J. (2013). Evidence that aerobic fitness is more salient than weight status in predicting standardized math and reading scores in fourth through eighth grade students. Journal of Pediatrics, Aug (163), 2, 344-348.
[34]
Cocke, A (2002). Brain may also pump up from workout. Retrieved from http://www.neurosurgery.medsch.ucla.edu.
[35]
Shepherd, R. J. (1997). Curricular physical activity and academic performance. Pediatric Exercise Science. 9, 113-125.
[36]
Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., Themanson, J. R., Pontifex, M. B., & Castelli, D. M. (2009). Aerobic fitness and cognitive development: Event-related brain potential and task performance indices of executive control in preadolescent children. Development Psychology, 45 (1), 114-129.
[37]
Chaddock, L., Erickson, K. L., Prakash, R. S., Van Patter, M., Voss, M. W., Pontifex, M. B, Kramer, A. F. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Developmental Neuroscience, 32 (3), 249-256.
[38]
Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., Johnson, C. R., Chaddock, L., Voss, M. W., Cohen, N. J., et al. (2011). Cardiorespiratory fitness and the flexible modulation of cognitive control in preadolescent children. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23 (6), 1332-1345.
[39]
Reed, J. A., Einstein, G., Hahn, E., Hooker, S. P., Gross, V. P., & Kravtiz, J. (2010). Examining he impact of integrating physical activity on fluid intelligence and academic performance in an elementary a school setting: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7 (3), 343-351.
[40]
Dwyer, T., Sallis, J. F., Blizzard, L., Lazarus, R., & Dean, K. (2001). Relation of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13, 225-238.
[41]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). The association between school based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance.
[42]
McCracken, B. (2002). Creating an environment for learning. The State Education Standard, p 46-51.
[43]
Datar, A, & Sturm, R. (2006). Childhood overweight and elementary school outcomes. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 1449-1460.
[44]
Miller, D., Taler, V., Davidson, P. S., & Messier, C. (2012). Measuring the impact of exercise on cognitive aging: methodological issues. Neurobiology of Aging, 33 (3), 29-43.
[45]
Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R., (2002). Neighborhood physical activity opportunity: a multilevel contextual mode. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 457-463.
[46]
Mezzacappa, E. (2004). Alerting, orienting, and executive attention: developmental Properties and sociodemographic correlates in an epidemiological sample of young, urban children. Child Development, 75, 1373-1386.
[47]
(Centers for Disease Control, 2009). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Obesity - Halting the epidemic by making health easier. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/index.htm.
[48]
Cline, K. P., Spradlin, T. E., & Plucker, J. P. (2005). Child obesity in Indiana: A growing public policy concern. Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation & Education Policy.
[49]
Summerbell CD, Waters E, Edmunds L, Kelly SAM, Brown T, & Campbell KJ. (2005). Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD001871. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001871.pub2.
[50]
Harada, T., Okagawa, S., & Kubota, K. (2004). Jogging improved performance of a behavioral branching task: implications for prefrontal activation. Neuroscience Research, 49 (3), 325-337. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2004.03.011.
[51]
Sibley, B. A., & Etnier, J. L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 243-256.
[52]
Haskell, W. L., I-Min Lee, F., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., et al. (2007). Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116 (9), 1081–1093.
[53]
US Department of Health. (1997). Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.(Biddle & Mutrie, 2008; Strôhle, 2009).
[54]
Biddle, S. J. H., & Mutrie, N. (2008). Psychology of Physical Activity: Determinants, Wellbeing and Interventions. (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
[55]
Lawlor & Hopker, 2001; Lawlor, D. A., & Hopker, S. W. (2001). The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal, 322 (7289), 763.
[56]
McDonald & Hodgdon, 1991; McDonald, D. G., & Hodgdon, J. A. (1991). The Psychological Effects of Aerobic Fitness Training Research and Theory. New York: Springer Verlag.
[57]
North, McCullagh, & Tran, 1990). North, T. C., McCullagh, P., & Tran, Z. V. (1990). Effect of exercise on depression. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 18 (1), 379–416.
[58]
Eveland-Sayers, B. M., Farley, R. S., Fuller, D. K., Morgan, D. W., & Caputo, J. L. (2009). Physical fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6, 99-104.
[59]
(Augestad, Slettemoen, & Flanders, 2008; Augestad, L. B., Slettemoen, R. P., & Flanders, W. D. (2008). Physical activity and depressive symptoms among Norwegian adults aged 20–50. Public Health Nursing, 25 (6), 536–545.
[60]
De Moor, Beem, Stubbe, Boomsma, & De Geus, 2006; De Moor, M. H. M., Beem, A. L., Stubbe, J. H., Boomsma, D. I., & De Geus, E. J. C. (2006). Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: A population-based study. Preventive Medicine, 42 (4), 273–279. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.12.002.
[61]
De Moor, Boomsma, Stubbe, Willemsen, & de Geus, 2008; De Moor, M. H. M., Boomsma, D. I., Stubbe, J. H., Willemsen, G., & de Geus, E. J. C. (2008). Testing causality in the association between regular exercise and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65 (8), 897–905.
[62]
Goodwin, 2003; Goodwin, R. D. (2003). Association between physical activity and mental disorders among adults in the United States. Preventive Medicine, 36 (6), 698–703. doi: 10.1016/S0091-7435(03)00042-2.
[63]
Mutrie& Hannah, 2007; Mutrie, N., & Hannah, M. K. (2007). The importance of both setting and intensity of physical activity in relation to non-clinical anxiety and depression. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 45 (1), 24–32.
[64]
Harvey, Hotopf, Overland, & Mykletun, 2010; Harvey, S. B., Hotopf, M., Overland, S., & Mykletun, A. (2010). Physical activity and common mental disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197 (5), 357–364.
[65]
Mikkelsen et al., 2010; Mikkelsen, S. S., Tolstrup, J. S., Flachs, E. M., Mortensen, E. L., Schnohr, P., & Flensborg Madsen, T. (2010). A cohort study of leisure time physical activity and depression. Preventive Medicine, 51 (6), 471–475. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.09.008.
[66]
Teychenne, Ball, & Salmon, 2008; Teychenne, M., Ball, K., & Salmon, J. (2008). Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review. [doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.009]. Preventive Medicine, 46 (5), 397-411.
[67]
Thorsen, L., Nystad, W., Stigum, H., Dahl, O., Klepp, O., Bremnes, R. M., et al. (2005). The association between self-reported physical activity and prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder in long-term survivors of testicular cancer and men in a general population sample. Supportive Care in Cancer, 13 (8), 637–646.
Browse journals by subject